Ecosystem services are resources and processes provided by natural ecosystems that result in obvious benefits to human. Woodlands provide a number of vital ecosystem services. They absorb and fix carbon, play a key role in hydrological processes, such as the regulation of water resources, and mitigate the processes of erosion and desertification. Woodlands also contribute to the regulation of atmospheric gas exchange, produce wood and other natural products, and preserve and enhance biodiversity of species and habitats. This program focuses on three of these ecosystem services: carbon flow and reserves, water resources, biodiversity and interactions between species. In the context of global change, woodland management strategies must be directed to promoting mitigation of its effects, and to guaranteeing the sustainable use of ecosystem services generated by woodlands. It is essential to adopt a common approach to the study of woodlands and their relationship with global change. This approach should allow us to identify and answer key questions about the services that woodlands provide to humans and about the policies that can be established to maintain these services in a context of global change.