Conservation biology is the applied science concerned with the management of biological diversity (or biodiversity). This scientific field has been widely developed during the last decades; at the same time society is increasingly becoming aware of biodiversity conservation. Some of the most highlighted research topics about plant conservation biology have been compiled in this chapter. From a scientific and legislative point of view, Spain occupies a relevant place following this growing conservation trend, which is extensively generalized around the world. Examples of studies focused on a threatened plant species (Helianthemum polygonoides) have been briefly included because their results contribute to the design of an effective management strategy of its natural habitat.